Anomalies are to be expected

It comes as a surprise to many people, but even in a completely random sample, there will be deviations from the mean.

In other words, even when using some unloaded dice, it is to be expected that some numbers will occur more or less often than average.

This should not be forgotten when examining the VM. (Since statistical analysis are virtually all we’ve got to crack the VM, one is tempted to overuse this tool — If all you’ve got is a hammer, everything looks like a nail…) It is the great art of the statistician to seperate the “noise” (which creates the random fluctuation) from a true “signal”, ie, from an underlying “cause” or rule which determines the composition of VM words and sentences.


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